Evaluation of repeatability of Kansas test method KT-73, "density, absorption and voids in hardened concrete," boil test.
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Evaluation of repeatability of Kansas test method KT-73, "density, absorption and voids in hardened concrete," boil test.

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      For years, the Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT) and concrete producers in the state have used a

      Rapid Chloride Test for concrete cylinders, AASHTO T277. This test has been thought of as an appropriate quality

      control test to evaluate permeability in concrete. Unfortunately, it has a low repeatability—a 51% difference in the

      mean between two laboratories/operators as percent of the mean (AASHTO T277, 2011). This could mean the

      difference between reliable permeability results and questionable results. This has a direct impact on KDOT’s ability to

      judge the quality of the concrete mixture, and whether it will be a long-term durable concrete or a concrete that fails


      KDOT has also used the Kansas Test Method KT-73 (2012), Density, Absorption and Voids in Hardened

      Concrete, a permeability test commonly referred to as the Boil Test, to evaluate concrete durability in the state of

      Kansas. It covers the determinations of density, percent absorption, and percent permeable voids in hardened concrete.

      KT-73 reflects testing procedures found in ASTM C642 (2013). KDOT has relied on this test to evaluate concrete

      permeability, but some concrete producers in the state have objected to its accuracy, preferring the Rapid Chloride Test

      which has a low repeatability. In 2009, with the help of several ready mix producers and private laboratories, KDOT

      conducted a round robin evaluation of KT-73.

      The results of this round robin showed that the KT-73 Boil Test could be repeated with a fairly high degree of

      precision. This study demonstrates that the expected range between two properly conducted tests at different

      laboratories should not be more than 8% of the average. The repeatability of the Boil Test is significantly better than

      the repeatability of the Rapid Chloride Test for concrete cylinders, AASHTO T277 (2011), which many concrete

      producers have relied on to verify their concrete’s durability. The Boil Test and the Rapid Chloride Test take about

      equal amounts of time to perform, but the equipment required for the Boil Test is significantly less expensive. Thus,

      the Boil Test is not only less expensive to perform, but is a better indicator with respect to reliability of the

      permeability and durability of concrete used in the state of Kansas.

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