Repair of rutting caused by studded tires : literature review.
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Repair of rutting caused by studded tires : literature review.

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    Rutting caused by studded tire wear has become a major issue in Oregon because of the impact on the infrastructure and the increase in driving hazards. It is estimated that the cost to mitigate the damage from studded tire use in 1993 alone is $42 million statewide. The ruts caused by the studs lead to reduced pavement life which increases the life cycle costs. The safety hazards include an increase in splash and spray and hydroplaning during rainy weather.

    The objectives of this report are:

    (1) To identify alternatives available for studded tire rut repair; and

    (2) To determine the viability of these alternatives with regard to material costs, availability, constructability and compatibility with Oregon pavement types.

    Several alternatives were identified to repair the ruts caused by studded tires. The alternatives include: microsurfacing, stone mastic asphalt (SMA), NOVACHIP (trademark), thin overlays, conventional overlays, roller compacted concrete, ultrathin concrete overlays, fine tooth milling, diamond grinding, hydroblasting with a bonded inlay, and realigning travel lanes.

    Microsurfacing and fine tooth milling are feasible alternatives for pavements that will be overlaid or reconstructed within a couple of years. SMA is reported to offer the best resistance to studded tire wear. Field testing of an SMA section is warranted for evaluation.

    The Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) Paving Committee should consider constructing an SMA wearing course to compare the performance with conventional mixes. At a minimum, one section should include PCC using a dense-graded mix as a leveling course and another section should include AC using rotomilling for leveling. Construction of an SMA wearing course will require laboratory testing to establish an appropriate mix design.

    The recommendations for further research include: (1) Investigating the preventive techniques Scandinavian countries have initiated - the investigation would entail identifying the aggregate properties that reduce wear caused by studded tires, based on Finland's aggregate specifications, evaluating sources that would meet the properties, and finally, modifying the ODOT aggregate specifications; (2) identifying pilot projects and investigating surface preparation requirements and/or tack coats for thin overlays; and (3) conducting a more detailed investigation into the advantages and disadvantages of shifting travel lanes in certain areas as a preventive measure.

    A work plan will be developed that will cover the recommendations.

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