Pollutant loading to stormwater runoff from highways : impact of a highway sweeping program.

Pollutant loading to stormwater runoff from highways : impact of a highway sweeping program.

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    Draft final report; Oct. 1, 2003-Jan. 30, 2009.
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    This report describes the methods used to collect stormwater runoff and evaluate a street sweeping program on U.S. Highway 151 in Madison, Wisconsin. The study was a cooperative effort among the Wisconsin Department of Transportation (WisDOT), U.S. Geological Survey, and Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. In a swept highway section, samples were collected to determine street dirt yields before and after a cleaning from either a vacuum-assisted or a mechanical-broom sweeper machine. Sweeping frequencies of twice per day, once per week, and once every two weeks were used during the study. On an unswept highway section of the study, street dirt yields are presented as weekly collections, and before and after runoff events. Water quality concentrations and flows are also presented for the unswept highway section. Average concentrations of selected contaminants are compared to concentrations measured in other studies of highway runoff. Changes in street dirt yields before and after sweeping and runoff events will be used to calibrate and verify the WinSLAMM model. By modifying the accumulation, event wash off, and street cleaning productivity equations in the model with the data from this study, WisDOT will be able to evaluate street sweeping programs on urban highways with curbs. A sweeping program is proposed as a best management practice to attain some of the 40% reduction in TSS prescribed in Wisconsin stormwater regulations. This report includes estimated daily-accumulation rates of street-dirt yields and percent of street-dirt washed off during a runoff event. Seasonal estimates of street-dirt yield reductions due to street sweeping are also presented. Concentrations and flows measured in the unswept highway section were used to calculate contaminant loads for each event. Loads were calculated for particulate and dissolved solids, inorganic compounds and trace metals. Sediment loads measured with a water quality sampler are augmented with the weights of sediment captured in a bedload sampler. Loads will be used to calibrate and verify the contaminant loads predicted at a highway outfall by the model by altering concentration files from this study.
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