Methodology to estimate particulate matter emissions from certified commercial aircraft engines.
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Methodology to estimate particulate matter emissions from certified commercial aircraft engines.

Filetype[PDF-474.14 KB]

  • English

  • Details:

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    • Edition:
      Volume 59; Jan. 2009
    • NTL Classification:
      NTL-AVIATION-AVIATION;NTL-AVIATION-Aviation Energy and Environment;NTL-AVIATION-Aviation Planning and Policy;NTL-ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT-Aviation Energy and Environment;NTL-ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT-Air Quality;NTL-ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT-Environment Impacts;
    • Abstract:
      Today, about one-fourth of U.S. commercial service airports,

      including 41 of the busiest 50, are either in nonattainment

      or maintenance areas per the National Ambient

      Air Quality Standards. U.S. aviation activity is forecasted

      to triple by 2025, while at the same time, the U.S. Environmental

      Protection Agency (EPA) is evaluating stricter

      particulate matter (PM) standards on the basis of documented

      human health and welfare impacts. Stricter federal

      standards are expected to impede capacity and limit

      aviation growth if regulatory mandated emission reductions

      occur as for other non-aviation sources (i.e., automobiles,

      power plants, etc.). In addition, strong interest

      exists as to the role aviation emissions play in air quality

      and climate change issues. These reasons underpin the

      need to quantify and understand PM emissions from certified

      commercial aircraft engines, which has led to the

      need for a methodology to predict these emissions. Standardized

      sampling techniques to measure volatile and

      nonvolatile PM emissions from aircraft engines do not

      exist. As such, a first-order approximation (FOA) was derived

      to fill this need based on available information.

      FOA1.0 only allowed prediction of nonvolatile PM.

      FOA2.0 was a change to include volatile PM emissions on

      the basis of the ratio of nonvolatile to volatile emissions.

      Recent collaborative efforts by industry (manufacturers

      and airlines), research establishments, and regulators

      have begun to provide further insight into the estimation

      of the PM emissions. The resultant PM measurement datasets

      are being analyzed to refine sampling techniques and

      progress towards standardized PM measurements. These

      preliminary measurement datasets also support the continued

      refinement of the FOA methodology. FOA3.0 disaggregated

      the prediction techniques to allow for independent

      prediction of nonvolatile and volatile emissions

      on a more theoretical basis. The Committee for Aviation

      Environmental Protection of the International Civil Aviation

      Organization endorsed the use of FOA3.0 in February

      2007. Further commitment was made to improve the

      FOA as new data become available, until such time the

      methodology is rendered obsolete by a fully validated

      database of PM emission indices for today’s certified commercial

      fleet. This paper discusses related assumptions

      and derived equations for the FOA3.0 methodology used

      worldwide to estimate PM emissions from certified commercial

      aircraft engines within the vicinity of airports.

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