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The Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System (CODES)
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  • Abstract:
    The CODES Technical Report presents state-specific results from the Crash

    Outcome Data Evaluation System project. These results confirm previous NHTSA

    studies and show that safety belts and motorcycle helmets are effective in

    reducing fatalities and injuries. The Report also shows that safety belt and

    motorcycle use in the seven CODES states (Hawaii, Maine, Missouri, New York,

    Pennsylvania, Utah, and Wisconsin) could save millions of dollars in direct

    medical costs. The CODES project represents the first time that

    occupant-specific medical outcome and cost data for all occupants involved in

    motor vehicle crashes were available for highway safety evaluation. The

    technical report provides detailed descriptions of the crash, EMS, emergency

    department, hospital discharge and other state data files used to generate the

    population-based information for the Report to Congress. It describes the

    background of the CODES project, the selection of the seven states, the

    formation of the CODES advisory committees within each state (crucial to a

    project which depended on the cooperation of various data owners and data users)

    and the concepts of probabilistic linkage. Variations and similarities among

    the states are discussed regarding the availability of state data, file

    preparation, linkage variables, the linkage process and resulting linkage

    rates, and validation of the linkage results. It elaborates on the uniform

    research model used and discusses the outcome variables, additional risk

    factors used as covariates, models used in the logistic regressions, and

    methods of computing weighted averages of odds ratios and effectiveness. It

    compares odds ratios to risk ratios and 'effectiveness' and presents

    state-specific results for the safety-belt analyses of injury and cost of

    injury. Finally, the document gives digests of other state-specific analyses,

    covering topics such as: data quality, additional linkages to improve the

    results, data outliers (extreme values, as in inpatient charges), alcohol and

    drug use, age factors, types of safety belts, and geographic patterns in crash

    characteristics. 95p. This document is an accompaniment to the Report to

    Congress on Benefits of Safety Belts and Motorcycle Helmets, based on data

    from The Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System (CODES), December, 1995.

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