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Human Factors Guidelines to Develop Educational Tip Cards for Aging Road Users [Final Report]
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    Our objective was to provide empirically supported guidelines and templates for the design of tip cards and other public service transportation materials to educate aging road users on traffic control devices. Task 1 identified relevant theories and data concerning the design of public service materials. We used this literature review to provide guidelines in the form of a human factors checklist. We then validated these guidelines. Task 2 aimed to produce tip cards to educate aging road users about correct actions to take for flashing yellow arrow (FYA), rectangular rapid flashing beacon (RRFB), and Right Turn on Red (ROR). We tested samples of younger (21-35 years), middle-aged (50-64 years), and older (65 years and older) drivers and compared standard and enhanced designs, conducting attitude and memory surveys, lab-based studies of speeded decision making, and a driving simulator study. We assessed human factors usability criteria of learnability, efficiency, memorability, errors, and satisfaction. Enhanced cards that conformed to the guidelines showed a large advantage in reading time over standard ones (efficiency) and an advantage in shorter wait times for making permissible right turns in a ROR simulator scenario (efficiency). They were not consistently superior for measures of learnability, memorability, errors, or satisfaction, but are considered effective. Task 3, based on the outcomes of usability testing, aimed to produce updated guidelines and example templates for tip card generation that attended to ordering and layout of components such as text and graphics and legibility of such materials, to yield designs that support comprehensibility and memorability. We generated specific templates for tip card production in a variety of Adobe formats.

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