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Remanufacturing, repurposing, and recycling of post-vehicle-application lithium-ion batteries.
  • Published Date:
    2014-06-01
  • Language:
    English
Filetype[PDF-1.14 MB]


Details:
  • Corporate Creators:
    Mineta National Transit Research Consortium
  • Report Number:
    CA-MNTRC-14-1137
  • Resource Type:
  • Geographical Coverage:
    United States
  • Corporate Publisher:
    Mineta National Transit Research Consortium
  • Format:
    PDF
  • Description:
    As lithium-ion batteries are an efficient energy storage mechanism, their use in vehicles is increasing to support electrification

    to meet increasing average mileage and decreasing greenhouse gas emission standards. Principles of environmentalism

    and sustainability suggest the development of processes for the remanufacturing, repurposing, and recycling of post-vehicle-application lithium-ion batteries. Proprietary commercial processes for remanufacturing for reuse in vehicles require safe battery

    testing that is supported by a newly developed workbench. Repurposing, with a focus on stationary energy storage applications

    and the development of battery management systems, is demonstrated. Recycling to recover the battery component materials

    using manual disassembly and acid leaching at relatively low temperatures and in short time periods is shown to be effective. A

    cost benefit-analysis shows that remanufacturing is profitable. Repurposing is profitable if the development cost is no more than

    $83/kWh to $114/kWh, depending on research and development expenses. Recycling, driven by environmental and sustainability

    principles, is not profitable in isolation. The cost of recycling must be borne by remanufacturing and repurposing. A forecasting

    model shows that the number of post-vehicle-application lithium-ion batteries will be sufficient to support remanufacturing,

    repurposing, and recycling.

  • Funding:
    DTRT12-G-UTC21
  • Supporting Files:
    No Additional Files
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