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Predicting damage in concrete due to expansive aggregates : modeling to enable sustainable material design.
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    Final report.
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  • Abstract:
    A poroelastic model is developed that can predict stress and strain distributions and, thus, ostensibly

    damage likelihood in concrete under freezing conditions caused by aggregates with undesirable

    combinations of geometry and constitutive properties. Sensitivity of the stress distributions to the aggregate

    and matrix constitutive parameters are assessed to allow improved concrete design. The proposed model

    does not account for the viscoelastic stress relaxation and may over-predict the stress results. The model is

    evaluated experimentally through acoustic emission analysis under freeze-thaw cyclic loading, which

    reveals that air-entrained concrete may undergo durability cracking (D-cracking) if deleterious materials

    are present. It is determined that high-porosity, low-permeability aggregates with fine pore structure are the

    most vulnerable to D-cracking in non-air-entrained concrete, and the destructive tensile stress is generated

    at the aggregate boundary by the Mandel-Cryer effect. On the other hand, low-porosity, high-permeability

    aggregates relax the pore liquid pressure rapidly and prove to be beneficial for the non-air-entrained

    concrete. Reduction in aggregate size is found to be effective in quickly relaxing the tensile tangential

    stress, which eventually helps mitigate D-cracking of concrete. The difference between the coefficients of

    thermal expansion of the coarse aggregate and the matrix in which they are embedded should not be too

    high since it may cause tensile stress at the aggregate boundary or interfacial transition zone. Low water-tocement

    mass ratio and addition of pozzolans help increase the bulk modulus, reduce the porosity of the

    porous body, and improve durability. It is also observed that increase in cooling rate decreases concrete

    durability under freezing temperatures through the reduction in time available to relax pore pressure

    buildup and the related tangential stresses in the aggregate and matrix.

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