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Alternatives to type II cement : final report.
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    Concrete mixtures incorporating fly ash were investigated as possible alternatives to mixtures utilizing Type II cements. The mixture characteristics considered were strength, resistance to freezing and thawing and sulfates, heat of hydration, and volume stability. Two testing programs were undertaken. In the first program control mixtures were prepared using Types I, II, and III cements and the experimental mixtures were made of Type IP cement and Type I cement with fly ash. An interim report presented in February 1977 gave the results of the initial tests for compressive and flexural strengths, resistance to rapid freezing and thawing, early volume change, time of set, and heat of hydration. Some of the specimens-containing fly ash in the initial testing program exhibited marginal resistance to freezing and thawing in salt solution as manifested by weight loss, which indicates scaling. To investigate this finding further, a second testing program using Types II, IP, and Type I cement with fly ash was initiated. Also, additional mixtures were prepared using Types I, II, IP, and I with fly ash to test the level of heat of hydration. This final report presents the data on the initial testing program not included in the interim report and describes the second testing program. In general, the results indicate that concretes containing IP or Type I cement with fly ash can be an acceptable alternate to Type II; however, it should be recognized that more scaling in the presence of deicers may be expected.

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