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Sustainable concretes for transportation infrastructure.
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    performance in concrete for structural and transportation applications. Based on the challenges associated with coal ash (including SDA) and the economic costs linked to cement production, this research seeks to develop an environmentally friendly and more cost effective concrete product by utilizing SDA in partial replacement of cement in concrete. With the exception of a relatively higher sulfur content, SDA exhibits excellent properties that are closely related to Class C fly ash and portland cement. The fineness and low carbon content properties of SDA/Class C fly ash provide potential benefits of increased strength (compressive and bond) and durability (freeze-thaw and corrosion) when used in concrete. In this study, the addition of SDA in non-air entrained concrete provides a general increase in compressive and bond strength with optimal limits ranging between 25-35% replacement. The presence of SDA produced a negligible effect on the freeze-thaw durability of the concrete, which was air entrained. Corrosion results are not as conclusive, but the 50% SDA mix provides performance similar to or slightly better than the control concrete.
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