Design and evaluation of high-volume fly ash (HVFA) concrete mixes, report A : evaluation of HVFA cementitious paste and concrete mixtures.
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Design and evaluation of high-volume fly ash (HVFA) concrete mixes, report A : evaluation of HVFA cementitious paste and concrete mixtures.

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  • Abstract:
    In the Paste Screening Study, 25 combinations of five Type I/II portland cements

    and five Class C fly ashes commonly used in Missouri were tested in paste form with no

    chemical or powder additives. Testing procedures included semi-adiabatic calorimetry,

    Vicat setting time, miniature slump, and compressive strength at one and 28 days. The

    two most reactive and two least reactive combinations (defined by one day strengths)

    were further evaluated in the Paste Main Effects Study. Eighty mixtures were examined.

    In the Paste Main Effects Study, the effects of two levels each of WR/HRWR,

    gypsum, calcium hydroxide (lime), rapid set cement (RSC), and gypsum-lime, and

    gypsum-RSC were determined. Except for the WR/HRWR dosage level experiment, all

    other mixtures contained a low WR/HRWR dosage. Except for the gypsum level

    experiment, all other mixtures contained 4% gypsum. The lime levels were 5 and 10%

    and the RSC levels were 10 and 20%. All percentages are by mass of fly ash. Sixty-four

    mixtures were examined.

    The objective of the Concrete Properties Study was to scale up from paste to

    concrete the most promising powder additive combinations and then evaluate the

    mixtures in terms of plastic and hardened properties. Thus the mixture matrix included

    ordinary portland cement (OPC)-fly ash blends at two levels (same as in the Paste Main

    Effects Study) and fly ash at three levels (zero, 50 and 70%). WR dosage (nominal

    dosage), gypsum content (4%), lime content (10%), and RSC content (20%) were held

    constant. Ten concrete mixtures were evaluated.

    At the 50% fly ash level, one day strengths were low no matter which powder

    additives was used, but good strengths were achieved by day 3. At the 70% fly ash level, the concrete was weaker than at zero and 50% fly ash, but reasonable strengths were

    reached at 28 days. At 50% fly ash, abrasion resistance was somewhat lower. At 70% the

    effect was much worse. In regard to drying shrinkage, it appears that HVFA mixtures

    shrink less than their OPC counterparts. In a comparison to OPC mixtures, rapid chloride

    permeability (RCP) was lower for 50% fly ash mixtures, but 70% fly ash mixtures are

    more permeable. All HVFA mixtures had greater freeze-thaw Durability Factors than the

    OPC mixtures, and were at 93 or above. However, all fly ash mixtures did poorly in

    regard to salt scaling. Reaction time (calorimeter curve time, setting time, stiffening time)

    varied as a function of characteristics of the OPC and fly ash in conjunction with each

    other, type and level of powder additives used, dosage of WR/HRWR, and the type of

    test method used for evaluation.

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