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Pre-crash scenario framework for crash avoidance systems based on vehicle-to-vehicle communications
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  • Abstract:
    This paper prioritizes and statistically describes precrash

    scenarios as a basis for the identification of

    crash avoidance functions enhanced or enabled by

    vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication technology.

    Pre-crash scenarios depict vehicle movements and

    dynamics as well as the critical event immediately

    prior to the crash. The prioritization of pre-crash

    scenarios is based on the societal harm from persons

    who were injured in pre-crash scenarios involving at

    least two vehicles. The crash must also involve at

    least one light vehicle (e.g., passenger car, van,

    minivan, sport utility vehicle, or pickup truck) with a

    gross vehicle weight rating less than 4,536 kg. This

    paper also introduces a framework that serves to

    connect pre-crash scenarios to crash avoidance

    functions and provides information that will enable

    the identification of appropriate functional

    requirements, performance specifications, objective

    test procedures, and initial system effectiveness

    benchmarks. The framework incorporates crash

    statistics about the driving environment, contributing

    and causal factors, and kinematic information. In

    addition, time-to-collision equations for each precrash

    scenario are derived to identify key variables

    that must be measured to recognize and assess the

    crash threat of driving conflicts. Crash statistics are

    obtained from national crash databases including the

    2004-2008 General Estimates System, the National

    Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey, and the

    Event Data Recorder database. A set of ten pre-crash

    scenarios are identified as a priority for the

    development of V2V-based safety applications.

    These priority scenarios are arranged into five crash

    avoidance packages that consist of rear-end, lane

    change, opposite direction, junction crossing, and left

    turn across path/opposite direction crash

    countermeasures. This paper delineates the priority

    pre-crash scenarios and maps them to V2V-based

    safety applications under development.

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