Pre-crash scenario framework for crash avoidance systems based on vehicle-to-vehicle communications
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Pre-crash scenario framework for crash avoidance systems based on vehicle-to-vehicle communications

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    • Abstract:
      This paper prioritizes and statistically describes precrash

      scenarios as a basis for the identification of

      crash avoidance functions enhanced or enabled by

      vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication technology.

      Pre-crash scenarios depict vehicle movements and

      dynamics as well as the critical event immediately

      prior to the crash. The prioritization of pre-crash

      scenarios is based on the societal harm from persons

      who were injured in pre-crash scenarios involving at

      least two vehicles. The crash must also involve at

      least one light vehicle (e.g., passenger car, van,

      minivan, sport utility vehicle, or pickup truck) with a

      gross vehicle weight rating less than 4,536 kg. This

      paper also introduces a framework that serves to

      connect pre-crash scenarios to crash avoidance

      functions and provides information that will enable

      the identification of appropriate functional

      requirements, performance specifications, objective

      test procedures, and initial system effectiveness

      benchmarks. The framework incorporates crash

      statistics about the driving environment, contributing

      and causal factors, and kinematic information. In

      addition, time-to-collision equations for each precrash

      scenario are derived to identify key variables

      that must be measured to recognize and assess the

      crash threat of driving conflicts. Crash statistics are

      obtained from national crash databases including the

      2004-2008 General Estimates System, the National

      Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey, and the

      Event Data Recorder database. A set of ten pre-crash

      scenarios are identified as a priority for the

      development of V2V-based safety applications.

      These priority scenarios are arranged into five crash

      avoidance packages that consist of rear-end, lane

      change, opposite direction, junction crossing, and left

      turn across path/opposite direction crash

      countermeasures. This paper delineates the priority

      pre-crash scenarios and maps them to V2V-based

      safety applications under development.

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