An Evaluation of the Crack, Seat and Overlay Method in California (Phase II)
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An Evaluation of the Crack, Seat and Overlay Method in California (Phase II)

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  • Alternative Title:
    Evaluation of crack, seat and overlay in California : phase I.
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  • Abstract:
    During the past 20 years hundreds of highway miles in California have been rehabilitated employing CS&O technique with little performance data available. This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of CS&O for sections built in different climatic regions in CA. The study also included developing performance prediction models for CS&O sections. These models can be incorporated into Caltrans Pavement Management System (PMS) to predict future performance, assist in LCCA and optimize the allocation of resources. The study was conducted in two phases. In phase I, CS&O sections built throughout the U.S. were identified in the Long Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) database. Inventory and performance data were then extracted and analyzed for these sections. Also, fourteen (14) CS&O sections in the Central Valley (CV) region of California were examined. Performance data for these sections were obtained from the Caltrans Pavement Condition Report (PCR) and were analyzed along with inventory data obtained from as-built sheets. In Phase II, seventeen (17) CS&O sections (eight (8) on the Central Coast and nine (9) in Northern California) were identified and examined. Performance data were extracted from the Caltrans PCR. As-built and maintenance history data were obtained from the Caltrans District 05 (D05) and District 02 (D02) offices. Data for these sections were combined with data from the Central Valley region (Phase I) to evaluate the performance of CS&O sections throughout California. Also, performance models were developed for three different regions, namely Central Valley (CV), Central Coast (CC), and Northern California (NCA). The analysis results indicate that sections in CV reach an IRI threshold of 170 in/mile after about 10 years of service while sections in CC and NCA are expected to serve for more than 10 years before reaching this threshold value. Differences in construction techniques and quality control are evident for the three regions, as observed from the difference in initial IRI. Reflection cracking in the transverse and longitudinal directions is not a significant issue for the CS&O sections examined as part of this study. Alligator cracking 'A' and 'B' were reported for a considerable number of California sections investigated in this study. Also, alligator cracking 'C' was observed for a few number of sections in the CC, NCA and CC regions. Also, Alligator cracks of low, medium and high severity were reported for CS&O sections in the LTPP database. The developed models provide a basis for predicting distress in Caltrans CS&O pavements. Among the model forms attempted, the nonlinear form proved to be the best fit, while still satisfying important boundary conditions. The ratio of asphalt overlay to concrete slab thickness proves to be a significant variable affecting all types of cracking in CS&O pavements. The results of a sensitivity-study suggest that age is the most significant factor affecting the deterioration of CS&O pavements. Annual traffic level, in terms of ESAL, and layer thickness ratio are secondary model variables influencing alligator cracking and IRI. Layer thickness ratio is a secondary model variable affecting reflective cracking.
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