Constitutive and Numerical Modeling of Soil and Soil-Pile interaction for 3D Applications and Kealakaha Stream Bridge Case Study.
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Constitutive and Numerical Modeling of Soil and Soil-Pile interaction for 3D Applications and Kealakaha Stream Bridge Case Study.

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      This study is concerned with developing new modeling tools for predicting the response of the new Kealakaha Stream Bridge to static and dynamic loads, including seismic shaking. The bridge will span 220 meters, with the deck structure being curved and sloped. In addition, the piers will be resting on opposite sides of a very deep gulch. As a result, conventional two-dimensional modeling is considered inadequate and a full three-dimensional approach to address the soil-structure interaction problem becomes necessary. The difficulty with carrying out such a comprehensive modeling effort lies, in part, on the enormous computational resources that are necessary to achieve even a moderate degree of prediction detail. Thus a computationally efficient numerical technique becomes essential. This study focuses on developing specific formulation improvements that should provide substantial computational savings and improved predictions for general finite and infinite element numerical codes. The platform that is embraced in this study is the open source code OpenSees, which is rapidly becoming the framework of choice in the earthquake engineering community for complex soil-structure interaction problems. A number of advanced constitutive soil models and miscellaneous coding improvements have been incorporated into OpenSees. It is expected that the findings of this study should lead to a computational resource that will be able to provide useful predictions for the new Kealakaha bridge and other similar bridge structures. As part of this study, a generalized integration formulation is presented in tensorial form for 3D elastoplastic problems. Two special cases of this generalized formulation, the well known implicit and explicit integration schemes, are compared for four specific soil models with regard to accuracy and efficiency. A 20-node reduced integration brick element is implemented for this purpose. The findings provide useful guidelines for selection of particular integration schemes for nonlinear 3D problems.
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