Ground tire rubber (GTR) as a component material in concrete mixtures for paving concrete.
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Ground tire rubber (GTR) as a component material in concrete mixtures for paving concrete.

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    • Abstract:
      This research was done to investigate if the problems associated with flexibility and temperature sensitivity (expansion and

      contraction) in roadway concrete pavements can be addressed by replacing some of the fine or coarse aggregate component

      with crumb rubber, specifically, Ground Tire Rubber (GTR). The research also intended to find out the general effects of

      adding the GTR to the conventional pavement concrete, in terms of the mechanical properties and workability, requiring

      several laboratory tests to be conducted as part of the study. Finally, the research was required to evaluate the practical

      implementation at a ready mix plant, of the proposed use of GTR as a component in the concrete. It was found from the

      study that the modulus of elasticity of concrete is reduced when GTR is used in concrete, thus the pavement concrete

      becomes more flexible. Based on the results of the tests for the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), it was not

      conclusive from this study, that adding GTR will significantly affect the expansion and contraction in the concrete


      Many valuable findings from this study include the following: the optimal content for GTR for use as a component in the

      paving concrete mixture is 15% by weight of the fine aggregate; at a water/cementitious ratio of 0.44, concrete with GTR of

      15% by weight of the fine aggregate, using water-reducing admixtures, can achieve a 28-Day compressive strength of about

      3000 psi as well as reasonable values of the flexural strength and split tensile strength; slump was observed to typically

      decrease with addition of GTR but use of the water-reducer will eliminate this problem; the unit weight of the GTR

      concrete is less than that of the conventional concrete; air content will always increase with addition of GTR to the concrete

      but the use of a defoaming agent will reduce the foam and air content; GTR concrete has a non-brittle mode of failure in

      compression and flexure; examining GTR concrete under the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) indicated that there is

      good bonding between the rubber particles and the cement matrix in the concrete; pretreatment of GTR by simple washing

      and drying may improve the compressive strength of the GTR concrete; GTR concrete has very good plastic and dry

      shrinkage attributes, with the ability to resist shrinkage cracking; the ready mix plant operations will require dry-safe

      storage of the GTR, customized packaging (bag sizes or bag material) of the GTR for convenient batching, and a less

      duration for mixing before placement (when compared to the 90 minutes mixing duration allowed for conventional

      concrete); the GTR concrete can be used in the following applications: Class I pavement; sidewalks; curbs and inlets; or

      applications where the compressive strength of 3000 psi or less is adequate and also where shrinkage may be a problem.

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