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Alternative materials for sustainable transportation.
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    A shortage of asphalt and polymers is creating opportunities for engineers to utilize alternative pavement materials. Three types of bio oil, untreated bio oil (UTB), treated bio oil (TB) and polymer-modified bio oil (PMB) were studied in this research. The research investigated the producing procedure of bio oil, the compatibility analysis between bio oil and petroleum-based asphalt, the rheological properties of asphalt binders modified and partially replaced by bio oil, the mechanical performances of asphalt mixtures modified by bio oil, and the lifecycle assessment and environmental impact of bioasphalt use. The main findings of the study include: 1) treated bio oil with low percent in the base asphalt can achieve appreciable or desirable stability with petroleum-based asphalt; 2) the virgin bioasphalt is softer than the traditional asphalt binder PG 58-28 but stiffer after RTFO aging because bio oil ages much faster than the traditional asphalt binder during mixing and compaction; 3) the binder test showed that the addition of bio oil is expected to increase the rutting performance while reduce the fatigue and low temperature performance; 4) the mixture test showed that (i) most of the bio oil modified asphalt mixtures had slightly higher rutting depth than the control asphalt mixture; (ii) the dynamic modulus of some of the bio oil modified asphalt mixture were lower than the control asphalt mixture; (iii) most of the bio oil modified asphalt mixtures had higher fatigue lives than the control asphalt mixture; (iv) the inconsistence of binder test results and mixture test results may be attributed to that the aging during the lab mixing and compaction was not as high as that in the RTFO aging simulation. 5) the implementation of Michigan wood bioasphalt is anticipated to reduce the emission but bring irritation on eyes and skins during the mixing and compaction; 6) the use of bioasphalt is expected to promote the job creation and regional growth.
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