Design and evaluation of high-volume fly ash (HVFA) concrete mixes.
Advanced Search
Select up to three search categories and corresponding keywords using the fields to the right. Refer to the Help section for more detailed instructions.

Search our Collections & Repository

All these words:

For very narrow results

This exact word or phrase:

When looking for a specific result

Any of these words:

Best used for discovery & interchangable words

None of these words:

Recommended to be used in conjunction with other fields



Publication Date Range:


Document Data


Document Type:






Clear All

Query Builder

Query box

Clear All

For additional assistance using the Custom Query please check out our Help Page


Design and evaluation of high-volume fly ash (HVFA) concrete mixes.

Filetype[PDF-796.37 KB]

  • English

  • Details:

    • Resource Type:
    • Geographical Coverage:
    • Edition:
      Final report.
    • NTL Classification:
    • Abstract:
      Concrete is the world’s most consumed man-made material. Unfortunately, the production of portland cement, the active

      ingredient in concrete, generates a significant amount of carbon dioxide. For each pound of cement produced, approximately one

      pound of carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere. With cement production reaching nearly 6 billion tons per year

      worldwide, the sustainability of concrete is a very real concern.

      Since the 1930’s, fly ash – a pozzolanic material – has been used as a partial replacement of portland cement in concrete to

      improve the material’s strength and durability, while also limiting the amount of early heat generation. From an environmental

      perspective, replacing cement with fly ash reduces concrete’s overall carbon footprint and diverts an industrial by-product from

      the solid waste stream (currently, about 40 percent of fly ash is reclaimed for beneficial reuse and 60 percent is disposed of in


      Traditional specifications limit the amount of fly ash to 25 or 30 percent cement replacement. Recent studies, including those

      by the investigators, have shown that higher cement replacement percentages – even up to 75 percent – can result in excellent

      concrete in terms of both strength and durability. Referred to as high-volume fly ash (HVFA) concrete, this material offers a

      viable alternative to traditional portland cement concrete and is significantly more sustainable. By nearly doubling the use of

      reclaimed fly ash in concrete, HVFA concrete aligns well with MoDOT’s green initiative on recycling.

      However, HVFA concrete is not without its problems. At all replacement rates, fly ash generally slows down the setting time

      and hardening rates of concrete at early ages, especially under cold weather conditions, and when less reactive fly ashes are used.

      Furthermore, with industrial by-products, some variability in physical and chemical characteristics will normally occur, not only

      between power plants but also within the same plant. Consequently, to achieve the benefits of HVFA concrete, guidelines are

      needed for its proper application in bridges, roadways, culverts, retaining walls, and other transportation-related infrastructure


      The objective of this research was to design, test, and evaluate HVFA concrete mixtures. The study focused on the hardened

      properties of HVFA concrete containing aggregates and fly ash indigenous to the state of Missouri and developed guidelines on

      its use in infrastructure elements for MoDOT.

    • Format:
    • Main Document Checksum:
    • File Type:

    Supporting Files

    • No Additional Files

    More +

    You May Also Like

    Checkout today's featured content at

    Version 3.21