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Toxicological Assessment of Particulate Emissions From the Exhaust of Old and New Model Heavy- and Light-Duty Vehicles
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    Final project report.
  • Abstract:
    The primary objective of this project is to develop an improved understanding of the factors affecting the toxicology of particulate exhaust emissions. Diesel particulate matter is a known carcinogen, and particulate exhaust emissions from both light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles are toxic. Particulate matter emissions from three light-duty vehicles in five different configurations [a Honda Accord operating with diesel with a closed-coupled oxidation catalyst and an underfloor catalyst replaced in some tests with a diesel particle filter (DPF), a Toyota Corolla operating with gasoline, and a VW Golf alternatively operating with petrodiesel or biodiesel] were tested in a dynamometer facility. The vehicles were tested using a variety of real-world driving cycles and emission controls range from none through compliance with the 2007 and 2010 EPA standards. The chemical composition of the PM was fully characterized and the oxidative potential of the emissions assessed using two different toxicity assays. The DPF-equipped Accord and the gasoline vehicle had the lowest overall PM emission rates and the diesel and biodiesel vehicles produced the most potent exhaust in terms of oxidative activity. Correlations were explored between the chemical composition of the PM and the assay results. While there may be some confounding effects, elevated organic species emissions and select metals (associated with lube oil) were found to be correlated with the oxidative potential of the PM. These data, in combination with knowledge of the physical exhaust emission properties, emission control level and driving cycle provide insight into the expected toxicological impacts of changes in the vehicle fleet and planned emission control strategies and will be useful in the evaluation of the effect of fleet turn-over on the air quality impacts in the Los Angeles basin.

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