Aviation Accident Forensic Assessment: Comprehensive Single-Extraction Urine Screening Procedure: Final Report
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Aviation Accident Forensic Assessment: Comprehensive Single-Extraction Urine Screening Procedure: Final Report

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  • English

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      Aviation accident forensic assessment : comprehensive single-extraction urine screening procedure.
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    • Abstract:
      This paper describes a new single extraction screening procedure that was developed to identify as many drugs as possible in urine, with minimal effort and cost. Urine specimens are hydrolyzed and the specimen is then extracted using commercially purchased TOXI-LAB A extraction tubes. After removing the TOXI-LAB organic phase, the remaining aqueous layer is washed with chloroform. The organic phase and the chloroform wash are combined, evaporated to dryness, and then reconstituted a methanol solution. A quantity of the methanol solution is then chromatographed, using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a photo diode array and fluorescence detector. The methanol solution is next analyzed using either TOXI-LAB or gas chromatograph (GC) mass spectroscopy, depending on the compound detected using HPLC. When HPLC is negative, the extract is analyzed using the TOXI-LAB procedure. This method has proven successful in the identification of benzodiazepines, cardiovascular medications, antihistamines, and other drugs that could have been missed using only one of the possible methods. The number of positive benzodiazepines identified has increased as a result of using this new method, and the time required to complete cases has been reduced substantially. Using a single aliquot, extraction, and analysis of a urine specimen by several different methods makes it possible to screen for a wide variety of drugs. The new procedure helps prevent false negative results that might mislead investigators in aviation accidents. The fact that drugs can be uniquely identified by HPLC, and then confirmed using GC mass spectroscopy, reduces the time necessary to complete cases by reducing the number of aliquots needed to specifically identify the drugs present in the body.
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