High-accuracy direct aerial platform orientation with tightly coupled GPS/INS system : executive summary.

High-accuracy direct aerial platform orientation with tightly coupled GPS/INS system : executive summary.

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    Executive summary.
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    Obtaining sensor orientation by direct measurements is a rapidly emerging mapping technology. Modern GPS and INS systems allow for the direct determination of platform position and orientation at an unprecedented accuracy. In airborne surveying, aircraft trajectory and platform orientation can be determined at the level of few cm and 20-30 arcsec, respectively at an almost continuous time scale. The use of such integrated GPS/INS systems offers immediate benefits for largeformat camera-based airborne surveying by substantially reducing the need for ground control and by basically eliminating aerial-triangulation, except for system calibration. For emerging sensors such as LIDAR, RADAR, multi-/hyperspectral imagers, however, the use of the direct orientation systems is mandatory since indirect methods such as control point-based aerial-triangulation are not feasible. ODOT Aerial Engineering has been operating an airplane with a large-format Zeiss Jena LMK2000 camera. The introduction of a modern GPS/INS-based direct orientation system was not only highly desirable for economic reasons, but also mandatory if ODOT wanted to keep up with technological developments. Since ODOT predominantly performs corridor surveys over the highway infrastructure, the use of direct orientation makes it even more attractive in this case, since the savings due to the elimination of control points are quite substantial. By establishing a GPS/INS-based direct orientation technology for ODOT aerial operations, the foundations was given for future imaging sensor extensions such as the introduction of LIDAR systems or the like.
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