Radionavigation systems : a capabilities investment strategy.
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Radionavigation systems : a capabilities investment strategy.

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    The Final Report of the President's Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection concluded that Global Positioning System (GPS) services and applications are susceptible to various types of interference, and that the effects of these vulnerabilities on civilian transportation applications should be studied in detail. As a result of the report, Presidential Decision Directive (PDD) 63 directed that the Department of Transportation (DOT), in consultation with the Department of Defense (DoD), undertake a thorough evaluation of the vulnerability of the national transportation infrastructure that relies on the Global Positioning System. The Volpe National Transportation Systems Center (RSPA/Volpe Center) conducted a vulnerability analysis of GPS and identified the potential impact to aviation, maritime transportation, railroads, and Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). The final report, Vulnerability Assessment of the Transportation Infrastructure Relying on the Global Positioning System was published on August 29, 2001 (Ref.1). This study contained a series of recommendations, which were reviewed and ultimately accepted by the Department's operating agencies. Recommendation sets were made relative to: overarching issues related to GPS vulnerabilities, mitigating the vulnerabilities of the GPS signal to disruption or loss, and mitigating the vulnerabilities of the transportation systems resulting from the disruption or loss of the GPS signal. Addressing this set of Volpe recommendations started with the key question, "What type of backup systems must be in place to mitigate the disruption or loss of GPS?" The answer led to the establishment of a Capabilities Assessment Task Force to develop a recommended capabilities investment strategy for US radionavigation systems to meet transportation infrastructure requirements for the next ten years.This recommendation had to balance the plan to move toward a heavy reliance on satellite navigation with the vulnerabilities of such an approach highlighted in the Volpe Study. According to the study, "Backups for positioning and precision timing are necessary for all GPS applications involving the potential for life-threatening situations or major economic or environmental impact ... The appropriate mix for a given application will result from careful analysis of benefits, costs, and risk acceptance."
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