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Concrete pavement mixture design and analysis (MDA) : assessment of air void system requirements for durable concrete.
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  • Abstract:
    Concrete will suffer frost damage when saturated and subjected to freezing temperatures. Frost-durable concrete can be produced if a

    specialized surfactant, also known as an air-entraining admixture (AEA), is added during mixing to stabilize microscopic air voids.

    Small and well-dispersed air voids are critical to produce frost-resistant concrete.

    Work completed by Klieger in 1952 found the minimum volume of air required to consistently ensure frost durability in a concrete

    mixture subjected to rapid freezing and thawing cycles. He suggested that frost durability was provided if 18 percent air was created in

    the paste. This is the basis of current practice despite the tests being conducted on materials that are no longer available using tests that

    are different from those in use today.

    Based on the data presented, it was found that a minimum air content of 3.5 percent in the concrete and 11.0 percent in the paste should

    yield concrete durable in the ASTM C 666 with modern AEAs and low or no lignosulfonate water reducers (WRs). Limited data

    suggests that mixtures with a higher dosage of lignosulfonate will need about 1 percent more air in the concrete or 3 percent more air in

    the paste for the materials and procedures used. A spacing factor of 0.008 in. was still found to be necessary to provide frost durability

    for the mixtures investigated.

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